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Royal Inn Taipei Linsen: Red light district - See 276 traveler reviews, 217 candid photos, and great deals for Royal Inn Taipei Linsen at Tripadvisor. Amsterdam’s famous Red Light district may become a thing of the past if CDA’s proposal to make paying for sex a punishable offence gains legal grounds. Bangkok’s most prominent Red Light Districts include Soi Cowboy, Nana Plaza, Patpong, and Soi Twilight – all adjacent to one another in the centre of the city. The workers are typically women hailing from rural areas of the country that moved to the city to find work, but with limited education and the absence of other credentials required ... There a few reasons why Thailand became more expensive, especially the red light district prices. These are are the main reasons: 1) Economy Got Better Gone are those days where Thailand was considered to be a dirt poor country. One of the reason’s Thailand was so cheap before is because there weren’t as many jobs around. The legalities of sex work in Taiwan are conflicting, so it’s best to show care and due diligence if taking part in any of these activities. While there is no “red light district,” there is ... Taiwan TV news report gives glimpse into 'fish tank' brothels and other 'sights' of Geylang. ... Describing Geylang as 'Singapore's legalised red light district', the report explained that the ... Birds-eye View of Taiwan from Taipei 101 Taipei 101, the tallest and largest environmentally green building in the world, is 508 meters (1,667 ft) high, and gives a great experience of viewing the night scene of Taipei from its viewing deck. Wanhua is well-known for its night markets. In particular, Hua Xi Night Market, once known as the “Snake Alley” is most popular as it is Taiwan’s first official Night Market catered to tourists. This market is located just around the Longshan Temple and along Hua Xi Street. Unlike Geylang in Singapore, there is no single red light district in Taiwan.That doesn't mean there is no prostitution; they are just so spread out you can't point to any one particular area. Wan-Hua used to be known as the red light district of Taipei (and still is to a certain extent), but nowadays most of the sex workers had moved underground, working in innocent looking salons, spas ... 林森北路 is known as our red light district. Pop on over and get a glimpse of all the JD's(酒店) and the endless lines of scantily clad chicks in stilettos. Everything is done in a 包廂 where you pay for alcohol and their services in addition to sexual acts.
"Growth" by vaclav smil copy paste from book. The book is worth checking out
2019.12.09 02:09 MakeTotalDestr0i"Growth" by vaclav smil copy paste from book. The book is worth checking out
Crop Yields All crop yields have their productivity limits set by the efficiency of photosynthesis. Its maximum limit of converting light energy to chemical energy in new phytomass is almost 27% but as only 43% of the incoming radiation is photosynthetically active (blue and red parts of the spectrum), that rate is reduced to about 12%. Reflection of the light and its transmission 114 Chapter 2 through leaves make a minor difference, taking the overall rate down to about 11%. This means that an ideal crop, with leaves positioned at 90° angle to direct sunlight, would fix daily 1.7 t/ha of new phytomass or 620 t/ha if the growth continued throughout the year. But inherently large losses accompany the rapid rates of photosynthetic conversion. Plant enzymes cannot keep up with the incoming radiation, and because chlorophyll cannot store this influx the incoming energy is partially reradiated, lowering the performance to roughly 8–9%. Autotrophic respiration (typically at 40–50% of NPP) lowers the best achievable plant growth efficiencies to around 5%—and the highest recorded shortterm rates of net photosynthesis under optimum conditions are indeed that high. But most crops will not perform that well during the entire growing season because their performance will be limited by various environmental factors. In addition, there are important interspecific differences. The photosynthetic pathway used by most plants, a multistep process of O2 and CO2 exchange energized by red and blue light, was first traced by Melvin Calvin and Andrew Benson during the early 1950s (Bassham and Calvin 1957; Calvin 1989). Because the first stable carbon compound produced by this process is phosphoglyceric acid containing three carbons plants deploying this carboxylation, reduction and regeneration sequences are known as C3 plants and they include most of the staple grain, legume, and potato crops, as well all common vegetables and fruits. Their principal downside is photorespiration, daytime oxygenation that wastes part of the newly produced photosynthates. Some plants avoid this loss by producing first four-carbon acids (Hatch 1992). Most of these C4 plants are also structurally different from C3 species, as their vascular conducting tissue is surrounded by a bundle sheath of large cells filled with chloroplasts. Corn, sugar cane, sorghum, and millets are the most important C4 crops. Unfortunately, some of the most persistent weeds—including crab grass (Digitaria sanguinalis), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)—are also C4 species, presenting an unwelcome competition for C3 crops. Although the C4 sequence needs more energy than the Calvin-Benson cycle, the absence of photorespiration more than makes up for that and C4 species are inherently better overall converters of sunlight into phytomass. Differences are around 40% when comparing the maximum daily growth rates, but daily maxima integrated and averaged over an entire growing season are up to 70% higher. Nature 115 Moreover, photosynthesis in C4 species proceeds without any light saturation, while C3 plants reach their peak at irradiances around 300 W/m2 . And while C3 crops do best in a temperature between 15° and 25°C, photosynthetic optima for C4 crops are 30°–45°C, making then much better adapted for sunny, hot, and arid climates. Everything else being equal, typical yields of corn and sugar cane are thus well ahead of average yields of wheat and sugar beets, the two common C3 species that have a similar nutritional composition. Peak daily growth rates actually measured in fields are more than 50 g/m2 for corn, but less than 20 g/m2 for wheat. Means for the entire growing season are obviously much lower: in 2015, a very good corn harvest of 10 t/ha corresponded (assuming total growth period of 150 days) to average daily growth of less than 10 g/m2 . There can be no reliable reconstruction of prehistoric crop yields, only isolated approximations are available to quantify the harvests in antiquity, and even the reconstructions of medieval yield trajectories remain elusive. But if such data were available, they would not reveal any surprises because indirect agronomic and population evidence attests to low, barely changing and highly fluctuating staple grain yields. And the history of English wheat yields—a rare instance where we have nearly a millennium of evidence of reports, estimates and eventually of actual measurements that allows us to reconstruct the growth trajectory—illustrates how uncertain our conclusions are even regarding the early part of the early modern era. There are two major reasons for these uncertainties. European yields were traditionally expressed in relative terms, as returns of planted seed, and poor harvests yielded barely enough to produce sufficient seed for the next year’s planting. Up to 30% of all seed from below-average harvests had to be diverted to seed and only with higher yields during the early modern era did that share gradually decline to less than 10% by the mid-18th century. In addition, the original medieval measures (bushels) were volumetric rather than in mass units, and because premodern seeds were smaller than our high-yielding cultivars their conversions to mass equivalents cannot be highly accurate. And even some of the best (usually monastic) records have many gaps, and yields were also subject to considerable annual fluctuations caused by inclement weather, epidemics, and warfare, making even very accurate rates for one or two years hard to interpret. Earlier studies of English wheat yields assumed typical wheat seed returns of between three and four during the 13th century, implying very low harvests of just above 500 kg/ha, with reported maxima close to 1 t/ha (Bennett 1935; Stanhill 1976; Clark 1991). Amthor’s (1998) compilation of yields 116 Chapter 2 based on a wide range of manorial, parish, and country records show values ranging mostly between 280 and 570 kg/ha for the 13th to 15th centuries (with exceptional maxima of 820–1130 kg/ha) and 550–950 kg/ha for the subsequent two centuries. A permanent doubling of low medieval wheat yields took about 500 years, and discernible takeoff began only after 1600. But uncertainties mark even the 18th century: depending on the sources used, wheat yields did not grow at all—or as much as doubled by 1800 (Overton 1984). More recent assessments produce a different trajectory. Campbell (2000) derived his average wheat yield for the year 1300—0.78 t/ha—from the assessments of demesne (land attached to manors) harvests and assumed the seeding rate of almost 0.2 t/ha. But in the early 14th century the demesnes accounted only about 25% of the cultivated land and assumptions must be made about the average output from peasant fields, with arguments made for both higher or lower outputs (and a compromise assumption of equal yields). Allen (2005) adjusted his 1300 mean to 0.72 t/ha and put the 1500 average about a third higher at 0.94 t/ha. There is little doubt that by 1700 the yields were much higher, close to 1.3 t/ha, but according to Brunt (2015), English wheat yields of the 1690s were depressed by unusually poor weather while those of the late 1850s were inflated by exceptionally good weather, and this combination led to overestimating the period’s growth of yields by as much as 50%. After a pause during the 18th century, the yields rose to about 1.9 t/ha by 1850, with the general adoption of regular rotations with legumes and improved seed selection accounting for most of the gain. According to Allen (2005), average English wheat yields thus increased almost threefold between 1300 and 1850. Subsequent yield rise was credited by Chorley (1981) primarily to the general adoption of rotations including legume cover crops, as in the common four-year succession of wheat, turnips, barley, and clover in Norfolk. These practices had at least tripled the rate of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Campbell and Overton 1993), and Chorley (1981) concluded that the importance of this neglected innovation was comparable to the effects of concurrent industrialization. Other measures that boosted English wheat yields included extensive land drainage, higher rates of manuring, and better cultivars. By 1850 many counties had harvests of 2 t/ha (Stanhill 1976), and by 1900 average British wheat yields had surpassed 2 t/ha. Dutch wheat yields showed a similar rate of improvement but average French yields did not surpass 1.3 t/ha by 1900. Even when opting for Allen’s (2005) reconstruction (an almost threefold rise between 1300 and 1850), average annual linear growth would have been Nature 117 just 0.3% and the mean rate during the second half of the 19th century would have been just above 0.2%/year. The long-term trajectory of English wheat yields is the first instance of a very common growth sequence that will be pointed out many times in the coming chapters of this book dealing with technical advances. Centuries, even millennia, of no growth or marginal improvements preceded an eventual takeoff that was followed by a period of impressive gains that began in a few instances already during the 18th century, but much more commonly during the 19th and 20th centuries. While some of these exponential trajectories continue (albeit at often attenuated rates), recent decades have seen many of these growth phenomena approaching unmistakable plateaus, some even entering a period of (temporary or longer-lasting) decline. And wheat yields also represent one of those relatively rare phenomena where the US has not only not led the world in their modern growth but was a belated follower. This is due to the extensive nature of US wheat farming, dominated by vast areas of the Great Plains where the climate is much harsher than in Atlantic Europe. Recurrent shortages of precipitation preclude heavy fertilizer applications, and low temperatures limit the cultivation of winter wheat and reduce the average yield. Records from Kansas, the heart of the Great Plains wheat region, show nearly a century of stagnating (and highly fluctuating) harvests. Average yields (calculated as the mean of the previous five years) was 1 t/ha in 1870 as well as in 1900 and 1950 (1.04, 0.98 and 1.06, to be exact), and they rose above 2 t/ha only by 1970 (USDA 2016a). Nationwide wheat yield rose only marginally during the second half of the 19th century from 0.74 t/ha in 1866 to 0.82 t/ha in 1900, and it was still only 1.11 t/ha by 1950. During the first half of the 20th century, plant breeders aimed at introducing new cultivars that would be more resistant to wheat diseases and whose shorter and stiffer stalks would reduce the lodging (falling over) of maturing crops and the resulting yield loss. Traditional cereal cultivars had a very low harvest index expressed as the ratio of grain yield and the total above-ground phytomass including inedible straw (stalks and leaves). This quotient, often called the grain-to-straw ratio, was as low as 0.2–0.3 for wheat (harvests produced three to five times as much straw as grain) and no higher than 0.36 for rice (Donald and Hamblin 1976; Smil 1999). Short-stalked wheat varieties may have originated in Korea in the third or fourth century. They reached Japan by the 16th century and by the early 20th century the Japanese variety Akakomugi was brought to Italy for crossing. In 1917 Daruma, another Japanese short-straw variety, was crossed with American Fultz; in 1924 that cultivar was crossed with Turkey Red; and in 1935 Gonjiro Inazuka released the final selection of that cross as Norin 10, just 55 cm tall (Reitz and Salmon 1968; Lumpkin 2015). Two key genes produced semidwarf plants and allowed better nitrogen uptake and heavier grain heads without becoming top-heavy and lodging. Samples of Norin 10 were brought to the US by an American breeder visiting Japan after World War II, and Orville Vogel used the cultivar to produce Gaines, the first semidwarf winter wheat suitable for commercial production, released in 1961 (Vogel 1977). Vogel also provided Norin 10 to Norman Borlaug, who led Mexico’s antilodging, yield-raising breeding program that has operated since 1966 as CIMMYT, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. CIMMYT released the first two high-yielding semidwarf commercial Norin 10 derivatives (Pitic 62 and Penjamo) in 1962 (Lumpkin 2015). These cultivars and their successors enabled the sudden yield growth that became known as the Green Revolution and resulted in a Nobel Prize for Norman Borlaug (Borlaug 1970). Their harvest indices were around 0.5, yielding as much edible grain as inedible straw, and their worldwide diffusion changed the yield prospects. Berry et al. (2015) offered a closer look at the longterm impact of short-stalked wheat by analyzing the height of UK winter wheat using data from national variety testing trials between 1977 and 2013. Overall average height reduction was 22 cm (from 110 to 88 cm) and annual yield increases attributable to new varieties were 61 kg/ha between 1948 and 1981 and 74 kg/ha between 1982 and 2007, amounting to a total genetic improvement of about 3 t/ha between 1970 and 2007. Until the 1960s, wheat was the world’s leading grain crop, but Asia’s growing populations and high demand for meat pushed both rice and corn ahead of wheat. Corn has become the most important grain (with an annual global harvest just above 1 Gt), followed by rice, with wheat closely behind. China, India, US, Russia, and France are the world’s largest wheat producers, Canada, US, Australia, France, and Russia are the crop’s leading exporters. Wheat’s global yield (depressed by crops grown in a semiarid environment without adequate irrigation and fertilization) rose from 1.2 t/ha in 1965 to 1.85 t/ha in 1980, a gain of nearly 55% in just 15 years, and in the next 15 years it increased by another 35%. The response was no less impressive in the most productive European agricultures where the yields of 3–4 t/ha reached during the early 1960s marked the limit of improved traditional cultivars grown under near-optimal environmental conditions with plenty of fertilizers. Western European wheat yields more than doubled from 3 t/ha during the early 1960s to 6.5 t/ha during the early 1990s (FAO 2018). Nature 119 After the yields began to rise during the 1960s, progress remained linear but average growth rates were substantially higher (in some places up to an order of magnitude) than during the previous decades of marginal gains. Global wheat yields rose from the average of just 1.17 t/ha (mean of 1961–1965) to 3.15 t/ha (mean of 2010–2014), an annual gain of 3.2% or about 40 kg/year per hectare (FAO 2018). During the same period, the British harvest grew by 1.7% a year, the French by 3.2%, and growth rates reached 5% in India and 7% in China. The yield trajectories of other major wheat-producing countries show decades of stagnating low productivity pre-1960 followed by more than half a century of linear growth, including in Mexico (showing a fairly steep improvement), Russia, and Spain (Calderini and Slafer 1998). Nationwide means of US wheat yields have been available annually since 1866 (USDA 2017a) and their trajectory closely fits a logistic curve with obvious plateauing since the 1980s and with the prospect for 2050 no higher than the record harvests of the early 2010s (figure 2.9). Will the stagnation persist this time? The introduction of modern cultivars raised the nationwide average yield from 1.76 t/ha in 1960 to 2.93 t/ha in 2015, a growth rate of 1.2% a year. A closer look reveals the continuation of substantial annual deviation from the long-term trends, with both above- and below-average yields fluctuating by more than 10% for winter wheat, and 30 25 20 45 50 40 35 15 10 5 0 1866 1886 1906 1926 1946 1966 1986 2006 2026 US wheat yield (bushels/acre) Figure 2.9 Logistic growth (inflection point in 1970, asymptote at 46.5 bushels/acre) of average American wheat yields, 1866–2015. Data from USDA (2017a). 120 Chapter 2 much larger departures (up to about 40%) for Western Canadian spring wheat (Graf 2013). And there are also clear regional differences. Harvests in the eastern (rainier) states grew a bit faster than those in the central (more arid) states, and western yields rose from just over 2 t/ha to nearly 4.5 t/ha by the early 1990s (an average annual growth rate of nearly 4%) before their linear growth reached a distinct plateau from 1993. Unfortunately, the western US is not the only region that has seen the arrival of wheat yield plateaus. Statistical testing by Lin and Huybers (2012) confirmed that average wheat yields have also leveled off not only in the high-yielding countries of the European Union—in Italy (since 1995), in France (since 1996), in the UK (since 1997)—but also in Turkey (since 2000), India (since 2001), Egypt (since 2004), Pakistan (since 2007), and most notably, since 2009 in China. In total, nearly half of the 47 regions they tested had transitioned from linear growth to level trajectories. Most of these yield plateaus are in affluent countries with large food surpluses where agricultural policies discourage further yield increases. Brissona et al. (2010) took a closer look at the French decline and stagnation in the growth trend of wheat yields that has been evident in most of the country’s regions mainly since 1996–1998. They concluded that this was not due to genetic causes, but that the continuing breeding progress was partially negated by a changing climate, mainly due to heat stress during grain filling and drought during stem elongation. Agronomic changes guided by economic considerations (decline of legumes in cereal rotations, expanded rapeseed cultivation, reduced nitrogen fertilization) had also contributed to the new trend since the year 2000. In any case, even a prolonged yield plateau would have no effect on domestic supply and a minor effect on exports, but the presence of China (with nearly stabilized population but rising meat demand) and India and Pakistan (with their still expanding populations) among the countries with wheat yield stagnation is worrisome. Chinese crop yield stagnation has not been limited only to wheat. Between 1980 and 2005, when wheat yields increased on about 58% of the total harvest area but stagnated on about 16% of the area, rice and corn yields stagnated, respectively, on 50% and 54% of their total harvested areas (Li et al. 2016). Areas particularly prone to yield stagnation have included regions planted to lowland rice, upland intensive subtropical plantings with wheat, and regions growing corn in the temperate mixed system. The extent of these yield stagnations is high enough to raise questions about the country’s long-term staple food self-sufficiency: unlike Japan or South Korea, China is too large to secure most of its grain by imports. Nature 121 But not all major wheat-growing countries show the dominant trajectory of flat yield followed by rising (or rising and leveling-off) trajectories. The Australian experience has been perhaps the most idiosyncratic (Angus 2011). Yields fell from around 1 t/ha in 1860 to less than 0.5 t/ha by 1900 due to soil nutrient exhaustion, and although they recovered somewhat due to superphosphate fertilization, new cultivars, and fallowing, they remained below 1 t/ha until the early 1940s. Legume rotations boosted the yield above 1 t/ha after 1950, but the period of rapid yield increases brought by semidwarf cultivars after 1980 was relatively short as a millennium drought caused great fluctuations and depressed yields in the new century. Global rice production is larger than the worldwide wheat harvest when measured in unmilled grain (paddy rice), smaller when compared after milling (extraction rates are about 85% for wheat but just 67% for white rice, with the voluminous milling residues use for feed, specialty foods, and for various industrial products). Average per capita rice consumption has been declining in all affluent countries where rice was the traditional staple (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan) and recently also in China. Global output is still rising to meet the demand in Southeast Asia and Africa. The longterm trajectory of rice yield has been very similar to changes in wheat productivity: centuries of stagnation or marginal gains followed by impressive post-1960 growth due to the introduction of short-stalked, high-yielding cultivars. The best long-term record of rice yields is available for Japan (Miyamoto 2004; Bassino 2006). Average yields were above 1 t/ha already during the early Tokugawa period (1603–1867) period and by the end of the 19th century they rose to about 2.25 t/ha (as milled, 25% higher as unmilled paddy rice). Long-term linear growth during the 300 years from 1600 was thus less than 0.4%/year, similar to contemporary European rates for wheat harvests. But Japanese rice harvests (much like the English wheat yields) were exceptional: even during the 1950s, typical yields in India, Indonesia, and China were no higher than, respectively, 1.5, 1.7, and 2 t/ha (FAO 2018). The development of short-stalked rice cultivars (crossing the short japonica variety with the taller indica) was begun by FAO in 1949 in India but the main work proceeded (concurrently with the breeding of high-yielding wheats) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) at Los Baños in the Philippines, established in 1960. The first high-yielding semidwarf cultivar released by the IRRI was IR8, whose yields in field trials in 1966 averaged 9.4 t/ha and, unlike with other tested cultivars, actually rose with higher nitrogen fertilization (IRRI 1982; Hargrove and Coffman 2006). But 122 Chapter 2 IR8 also had undesirable properties: its chalky grain had a high breakage rate during milling and its high amylose content made it harden after cooling. But the cultivar launched Asia’s Green Revolution in rice and it was followed by better semidwarf varieties that were also more resistant to major pests and diseases. IR36 in 1976 was the first rapidly maturing cultivar (in just 105 days compared to 130 days for IR8) producing preferred slender grain, and it was followed by other releases developed at the IRRI by teams led by Gurdev Singh Khush (IRRI 1982). The adoption of new cultivars has diffused rapidly from Southeastern Asia to the rest of the continent as well as to Latin America and Africa (Dalrymple 1986). Productivity results have been impressive: between 1965 and 2015, average rice yields in China rose 2.3 times to 6.8 t/ha (figure 2.10). Yields in India and Indonesia increased 2.8 times (to 3.6 and 5.1 t/ha, respectively), implying annual linear growth rates of 2.7–3.7%, while the mean global yield had improved from 2 to 4.6 t/ha (2.6%/year). Corn, the dominant feed grain in affluent countries and an important staple food in Latin America and Africa, was the first crop whose yields benefited from hybridization. In 1908 George Harrison Shull was the first breeder to report on inbred corn lines showing deterioration of vigor and Figure 2.10 Longsheng Rice Terraces in Guangxi province in China: even these small fields now have high yields thanks to intensive fertilization. Photo available at wikimedia. Nature 123 yield that were completely recovered in hybrids between two inbred (homozygous) lines (Crow 1998). After years of experiments, American breeders developed crosses that produced consistently higher yields and introduced them commercially starting in the late 1920s. The subsequent diffusion of hybrid corn in the US was extraordinarily rapid, from less than 10% of all plantings in 1935 to more than 90% just four years later (Hoegemeyer 2014). New hybrids also produced more uniform plants (better for machine harvesting) and proved considerably more drought-tolerant, a more important consideration during the exceptional Great Plains drought of the 1930s than their higher yield under optimal conditions. Yields of traditional pre-1930 open-pollinated corn varieties stayed mostly between 1.3 and 1.8 t/ha: in 1866 (the first recorded year), the US mean was 1.5 t/ha, in 1900 it was 1.8 and in 1930 just 1.3 t/ha, and while there were expected annual weather-induced fluctuations the yield trajectory remained essentially flat (USDA 2017a). Between 1930 and 1960, the adoption of new commercial double crosses improved the average yield from 1.3 t/ha to about 3.4 t/ha corresponding to an average yield gain of 70 kg/year and mean annual linear growth of 5.4%. Subsequent adoption of single-cross varieties (they became dominant by 1970) produced even higher gains, about 130 kg/year, from 3.4 t/ha in 1965 to 8.6 t/ha by the year 2000, implying an average linear growth rate of 3.8%/year (Crow 1998; figure 2.11). US corn yield (bushels/acre) 20 40 60 80 120 140 100 0 1860 1880 open-pollinated double cross single cross 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Figure 2.11 Trends of distinct stages of stagnation and growth of average American grain corn yields, 1866–1997. Based on Crow (1998). 124 Chapter 2 And the growth continued in the early 21st century, with the 2015 crop setting a new record of 10.6 t/ha and linear growth rate of about 1.6% during the 15 years. But it would be wrong to credit that impressive yield growth (nearly an order of magnitude gain, from 1.3 t/ha in 1930 to 10.6 t/ha in 2015) solely to hybrid seeds. High yields would have been impossible without greatly expanded applications of nitrogenous fertilizers which allowed a far greater density of planting, widespread use of herbicides and insecticides, and complete mechanization of planting and harvesting that minimized the time needed for field operations and reduced grain losses (Crow 1998). The complete trajectory of average US corn yields (1866– 2015) fits almost perfectly a logistic curve that would plateau around 2050 at about 12 t/ha (figure 2.12). That would be a challenging, but not an impossible achievement given that Iowa’s record 2016 yield (in the state with the best growing conditions) was 12.7 t/ha. Higher planting densities were made possible by hybrid improvements in stress tolerance but higher yields could not be achieved without requisite increases in fertilizer applications. During the past 30 years, average North American corn seeding rates have increased at a linear rate by about 750 seeds/ha every year; in 2015 they averaged about 78,000 seeds/ha and in that year almost 10% of the total corn area in the US and Canada was planted with more than 89,000 seeds/ha (Pioneer 2017). Nitrogen 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 1866 1886 1906 1926 1946 1966 1986 2006 2026 2046 US corn yield (bushels/acre) Figure 2.12 Logistic growth trajectory (inflection point in 1988, asymptote at 194.1 bushels/acre) of average American grain corn yields, 1866–2015. Data from USDA (2017a). Nature 125 applications in US corn production nearly quadrupled between 1960 and 2015, while phosphate applications about doubled and potassium use more than doubled. America’s corn yields remain exceptionally high and they have kept on growing, from a higher base, more impressively than the global mean. Six decades after the widespread adoption of hybrids, American farmers were the first producers to grow transgenic corn. The first genetically modified variety was commercialized in 1996 by Monsanto as “Roundup Ready Corn”: it incorporated genes from Bacillus thuringiensis that make corn plants tolerant to high levels of herbicide applications (initially to glyphosate, a broadspectrum herbicide) (Gewin 2003). Bacillus thuringiensis transfers expressing toxins can be also used to combat insect infestations. Genetically modified cultivars should have increased yields by preventing the losses that would have taken place in the absence of insect and herbicide tolerance, and the actual gains depend on the efficacy of insect and weed control before the introduction of transgenic plants. Transgenic corn conquered US production quite rapidly: starting from zero in 1996, the area planted to new cultivars rose to 25% in the year 2000, and in 2016 89% of all corn plantings had herbicide tolerance, 79% had insect tolerance, and 76% were stacked varieties, containing both traits (USDA 2016b). Genetically modified soybeans, rapeseed (and cotton) had followed soon afterward, but the adoption of transgenic crops has encountered a great deal of consumer as well as regulatory resistance (particularly in the EU). As a result, there is still no large-scale cultivation of transgenic wheat or rice. But the opposition is not based on solid scientific foundations. Klümper and Qaim (2014) examined all principal factors that influence outcomes of genetically modified cropping and their meta-analysis provided robust evidence of benefits for producers in both affluent and low-income countries. On average, the adoption of transgenic crops has reduced pesticide use by 37% while it increased crop yields by 22% and profits by 68%, and yield gains were larger for insect-resistant than for herbicide-tolerant crops, and they have been higher in low-income countries. But there has been one worrisome trend. Lobell et al. (2014) analyzed corn yields in the most productive Corn Belt states (Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana) and found that between 1995 and 2012 agronomic changes translated into improved drought tolerance of plants but that corn yields remain sensitive to water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), a variable that was not included in the previous analyses of yields and climate change. Because VPD is expected to increase from 2.2 kPa in 2014 to 2.65 kPa by 2050, the unchanged annual rainfall across the study area (940 mm) would support 126 Chapter 2 an average yield about 10% lower, making production more vulnerable to even moderate droughts (Ort and Long 2014). But neither short-stalked cultivars nor genetically modified plants have changed the fundamental nature of crop yield trajectories: linear growth has been the dominant long-term trend in increasing average global productivity of staple grains since the beginning of the green revolution of the 1960s. Exponential increase in crop yields is possible during relatively short time periods (10–20 years) but not over the long term because it must eventually approach a yield potential ceiling determined by biophysical limits: that is why projections assuming that future crop yields will increase at exponential rates have absolutely no justification in past experience (Grassini et al. 2013). Such a growth pattern would require unprecedented departures from the prevailing ways of crop breeding and from the best agronomic procedures. And while some astonishing advances in designing synthetic crops de novo cannot be absolutely excluded, such designs remain in the realm of science fiction and cannot be seen as plausible contributions to feeding the world in the coming few decades. Moreover, it is important to reiterate that a wide variety of annual crop yield gains have begun to deviate from decades of linear growth. This has ranged from declines in the annual rate of yield gain (some fairly abrupt, others showing a gradual transition to reduced rates) to the establishment of clear yield plateaus. Grassini et al. (2013) showed that since the beginning of the Green Revolution of the 1960s the first pattern, linear piecewise growth with a decreasing growth rate, has applied to such crops as Indonesian rice and Chinese corn, while the second pattern (linear growth with upper plateau) is much more common, evident for Chinese, Korean, and Californian rice, wheat in northwestern Europe and India, and corn in Italy. Although these slowdowns and plateaus have not been worldwide phenomena extending to all major crops, some of these shifts have been worrisome because they have affected some key crops in major cropping regions. Looking ahead, a warmer world with higher atmospheric CO2 levels will have complex impacts on future crop productivity. Net outcome will depend on species- and environment-specific responses not only to higher average temperatures but also to changes in growing season and temperatures (and water availability) during critical phases of plant development. Even one of the least controversial expectations—that C3 plants should benefit more from increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 than C4 species, mainly because of promoting stomatal closure and saving water (Bazzaz and Sombroek 1996; Körner et al. 2007)—will be greatly affected by nutrient availability and higher temperatures. Nature 127 The extent of what has become known (inaccurately) as the CO2 fertilization effect has been put at a 20–60% increase of gross primary productivity for land photosynthesis at large. Wenzel et al. (2016) constrained that uncertainty (by looking at annual amplitude of the CO2 seasonal cycle) to 37 ± 9% for high-latitude ecosystems and 32% or extratropical ecosystems under a doubling of CO2 concentrations. But such findings cannot be extrapolated to specific crops, net gains could be much lower, and some crops may see substantial yield declines. Most notably, an assessment based on 30 different wheat crop models concluded that warming is already slowing yield gains in most wheat-growing locations, with wheat yield declines with rising temperature likely to be larger than previously expected (falling by 6% for every degree of temperature increase) and becoming more variable (Asseng et al. 2014). Moreover, even an unchanged trajectory or a clear new trend may be accompanied by greater yield variability and increased unpredictability of harvests. Analysis of changes in yield variability of major crops during the last two decades of the 20th century showed a decrease in 33% of the global harvested area for corn, in 21% of areas for wheat, and 19% of areas for rice, while significant variability increases were found in 11%, 22%, and 16% of the respective areas (Iizumi and Ramankutty 2016). Major agricultural regions with higher variability included Indonesia and South China for rice and Australia, France, and Ukraine for wheat. Assessments of future crop harvests are on a safer ground when examining yield potential and quantifying the yield gap for specific crops in specific locations. Yield potential refers to a crop whose harvest is limited by the plant’s genetic makeup, received solar radiation, temperature during the growing season, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and not by shortages of nutrients and water or by pests and weeds. The yield gap is the difference between yield potential (with different values for fully irrigated, partially irrigated, and rainfed crops) and actual yield. Record yields achieved during contests designed to maximize productivity realize 70–85% of the potential, and the difference between 85% of potential yields and actual prevailing crop yields is the exploitable yield gap (FAO 2015c). This value is perhaps the most revealing information about the prospects of long-term crop yield growth and ensuing food security in all regions where nutritional supply remains barely adequate or inadequate. The best way to determine the yield potential is to use a variety of crop growth models primed with appropriate natural parameters. Global Yield Gap and Water Productivity Atlas uses them to provide what it terms “robust estimates of untapped crop production potential on existing farmland based 128 Chapter 2 on current climate and available soil and water resources” (GYGA 2017). In 2017 the atlas covered, respectively, 60%, 58%, and 35% of the world’s rice, corn, and wheat production and it identifies the regions with the greatest potential for yield growth, allowing an appraisal of the likelihood of food self-sufficiency or the extent of future imports. Average absolute nationwide yield gaps (all in t/ha) in the US are 2–3 for both rainfed and irrigated corn and 3–4 for irrigated rice (wheat coverage is not yet available), 1.6–2.4 for rainfed and 3.2–4 for irrigated wheat in India, and 2–3 for irrigated rice in China. As expected, absolute gaps are much larger in sub-Saharan Africa where inadequate nutrient supply and poor agronomic practices have kept yields far below their potential. For example, water-limited yields for corn are 12–13 t/ha in Ethiopia and 10–11 t/ha in Nigeria, and with actual harvest being, respectively, just 2–3 and 1–2 t/ha this creates huge yield gaps between 9 and 11 t/ha. This means that even with modest agronomic improvements crop yields in the sub-Saharan Africa could see the fastest growth rates during the coming decades. Yield gaps, quantified and mapped on large scales, are useful guides for assessing the extent of future crop yield growth. In contrast, world record harvests achieved on small plots under optimal growing conditions should not be taken as indicators of the potential growth of national or regional yields but as demonstrations of how close some of these performances have come to achievable photosynthetic maxima. Remarkably, the US record corn yield rose from 23.5 t/ha in 1985 to 33.3 t/ha in 2015, which means that its average annual gain of 327 kg/ha was three times higher than the corresponding value for the nationwide mean (averages of 7.4 and 10.6 t/ha, that is annual yield gain of 107 kg/ha during those 30 years). Three decades before a Virginia farmer set the record corn harvest of just over 33 t/ha, Tollenaar (1985) calculated that the maximum theoretical yield with existing cultivars should be about 32 t/ha, but that plausible future changes in the plant’s energy conversion and photosynthate partitioning might raise the theoretical level to just over 83 t/ha. And 2015 saw new world records also for winter wheat and rice. Wheat yield of 16.52 t/ha harvested in Lincolnshire in eastern England was nearly twice the national mean of 8.8 t/ha and five time the global mean of 3.3 t/ha (AHDB 2015; FAO 2018). The record for rice of 22.4 t/ha, by a farmer in Nalanda district of India’s Bihar state, was nearly five times the global mean of 4.6 t/ha and more than six times the Indian mean of 3.5 t/ha. For comparison, the yield potential of temperate direct-seeded high-yielding rice grown in a southern US state and in California (which now yields between 8.3 (long-grain) and 9.1 (medium-grain) t/ha) has been set at 14.5 t/ha, Nature 129 with actual top yields falling within 85% of the calculated value (Espe et al. 2016). The best available long-term records for major crops other than staple grain follow the same general pattern of very long premodern yield stagnation followed by decades of linear growth made possible by better cultivars, adequate fertilization, use of pesticides and herbicides, mechanized harvesting and, in many cases, also by supplementary irrigation. In 2015 soybeans were the leading US crop by planted area (usually they are second only to corn) but their cultivation took off only during the 1930s. Yields rose from just 875 kg/ha in 1930 to 1.46 t/ha by 1950, 2.56 t/ha by the year 2000, and 3.2 t/ha in 2015 (USDA 2017a), a linear growth adding annually about 27 kg/ha. Assessments of future global supply focus on staple crops and typically give little attention to fruits and vegetables. Harvests of these crops have also benefited from the combination of better cultivars, better agronomic practices, and enhanced protection against diseases and pests. During the 50 years between the early 1960s and the early 2010s, the American fruit crop had averaged an annual linear harvest increment of about 150 kg/ha (but apples did much better at 500 kg/ha and are now at about 40 t/ha) and during the same period the average annual gain for all vegetables (excluding melons) was nearly 400 kg/ha (FAO 2018). But the gains in low-income countries have been much smaller, with annual fruit gains of less than 100 kg/ha.
As I mentioned in the previous section, the search for a modern Javanese identity began to emerge starting from the mid-19th century and continued to grow until the 1920s. However, with the quest to overthrow the Dutch, Javanese leaders sought common cause with other ethnic group, which lead to Sumpah Pemuda in 1928. While it lingered around until Indonesia got its independence from the Dutch in 1949, it quickly became dormant as Indonesian project took over. As a result of Reformasi 1998 and the decentralization of 2004/2005, Indonesia has seen a growing presence of Islam in the public sphere long suppressed under Suharto. Decentralization was important for this rising tide of Islam, because without it would have occurred much more slowly. By decentralizing authority to districts, it allows regional authorities to dictate issues like wearing hijab in schools and government offices, implemented of religious inspired by-laws. Regional elections have allowed conservative regions like West Sumatra elect officials that reflect the more orthodox Islam practice in the province.. However, decentralization also has spurned a revigoration of local identity and culture, and rising Javanese identity is at the forefront. In Why Prabowo-Sandi Lost: Caught by the Javanese Tsunam I mentioned the importance of decentralization and the role of social media, particularly, in rebirthing this identity. Now I will articulate the rough contours of this Modern Javanese identity, and how it is similar and different from the movement in the late 19th and early 20th century. In both cases its a reaction to changes in Javanese society brought about by external forces. In the 19th century it was a response to contact with the Dutch and Western ideas, In contemporary Javanese society, Modern Javanese identity is a response to the loss of culture and language as result of decades of "enforced" Malayifcation, growth in more "reformist" strains of Islam, decline of the plantation economy and growing urbanization, and migration. While it is still in its formative stages, the Modern Javanese Identity can be categorized as follows 1) Believes Javanese tradition, customs and thinking helps one navigate the modern world 2) Has its roots in the Javanese working class 3) Cosmopolitan 4) Its relatively more egalitarian than Indonesian society as a whole 5) On going debate about religious identity. In Why Prabowo-Sandi Lost: Caught by the Javanese Tsunami, I mentioned the Javanese are a visual people, particularly working class abangan Javanese. Prior to 1949, Javanese literacy rates were in the single digits. Low literacy, didn't stop lower class Javanese from producing batik, wayang, wood carvings and intricate stone work. This transfers over to the modern day. For the Javanese the preferred medium is video, and their favorite social media is youtube. In the last five years with cheaper broadband there is explosion of content. A youtube channel is like a series of reliefs on a Javanese candi. The importance of youtube, doesn't just extend to popular culture, but as channel for voices that aren't fully represented in the national media. Javanese Kyai, factory workers and maids working overseas, farmers in rural Java, craftsmen and a policeman in small town Java. They have some channels to devoted to presenting Javanese literature to people in Bahasa Indonesia.
PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF JAVANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
After almost 100 years of ancillary Malayization, and over 70 years were Malay (Indonesian) was taught as the primary language, language of government and media, many Javanese feel it has went too far. First, many younger generation in Tanah Jawa, don't know the two higher registers Madya and Krama Outside Tanah Jawa and transmigration settlements, many 2nd or 3rd generation Javanese can't even speak Ngoko. Than there are other aspects of Javanese culture like Javanese philosophy and Javanese arts like the Wayang, many older Javanese feel are being neglected. Thirty years ago, they still had travelling Wayang shows, where the Dalang would be hired by local communities. The Dalang would come with all the puppets and equipment in a Ox cart. Schools East and Central Java are trying to reverse the disinterest among young people toward Javanese language and culture like this in Malang, East Java.
Students perform gamelan music during the thanksgiving event. Those who attend SMA 1 Bantur are familiar with traditional arts. The sound of a gamelan performance and the buzzing noise of teenagers attracts passersby on the roadside in front of SMA 1 Bantur in Bantur village, some 40 kilometers south of Malang in East Java. Inside, students wearing the traditional blangkon headdress carry a tumpeng (rice cone served with various dishes), which symbolizes blessings, into a classroom. It is a monthly activity at the school to preserve the Javanese culture, this time coinciding with the opening of a new class building. The Javanese atmosphere was unmistakable in that school, with some students greeting visitors and speaking to older people in refined Javanese. Boards with Javanese philosophical quotes and mottos along with their Indonesian translation decorate classroom walls.
Most Javanese want to preserve Javanese culture, because they feel as Javanese,it is their obligation. However some feel Javanese language and culture is worth preserving, because it helps Javanese navigate the modern world. Its within this group are the advocates of Islam Nusantara emerge
NOTE: Both Western and Indonesian historians explain why Malay was chosen over Javanese as the national language. However, after over 70 years of independence, Malay's limitations are more apparent than they were in 1930s. First, the spirit of the Indonesian (ie Pancasila, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, Garuda) are Javanese, while the language is Malay. For example, the problematic first sila, the meaning of esa in Sanskrit is rather ambiguous, in Sanskrit it could mean "this", not just "one". As you can see from this example, and my previous examples, the Javanese are comfortable with ambiguity and introspection. This can be summarized best in the phrase "Sing ana, sing ora ana, ora ana, ana". What is, is not; what is not, is" Secondly, Benedict Anderson praised "Revolutionary Malay" or 'Indonesian for powering the revolution. The strength of Indonesian is it doesn't come with a lot of baggage, which means people adopt for their own purposes. Unfortunately, Muslims hardliners like Rizieq Shabib have hijacked it for their own purposes. Its more difficult to sound militant in Javanese. because of the cultural baggage, than it is in Indonesian. The desire for a "purer" Javanese identity, is the reason why many Javanese are fascinated by the Javanese in Suriname relative to Javanese in Netherlands or Malaysia. For example, when the Ambassdor to Suriname visited Jokowi when he was Governor of Jakarta, it was widely reported , or a youtube video about a Javanese market in Suriname can get 3.2 Million views. The Javanese in Suriname are mostly the descendants of Javanese laborers who left Indonesia between 1880-1920 to work in Suriname. They haven't been exposed to Malayification, the politicization of religion let alone the PKI and 1965 purges. They don't speak Malay or Indonesian, unlike the Javanese in Malaysia or the Netherlands. When their forefathers left Java 100-120 years ago, both NU and Muhammadiyah hadn't been setup yet or were still in their infancy As Governor of Central Java and DIY, Ganjar Pranowo and Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X job is promote and preserve Javanese culture. This is what distinguishes Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X and Sultans in Malaysia, one of his primary jobs is to promote and restore Javanese culture, while in Malaysia, the Sultans primary focus is to act as the guardians of Islam. Both Central Java and DIY sponsor events promoting Javanese culture, and in the last couple of years they held events promoting the Javanese Diaspora
In the 19th century, rural Javanese society was one of the more closed societies in Maritime Southeast Asia, now it is one of the most worldly. A century ago, the average Javanese could only speak Javanese, 95% couldn't even spell their own name. About 97% lived in East and Central Java. Now 1/4 of Javanese live outside East and Central Java, and that doesn't include Javanese who migrated to Malaysia and Singapore over the last 150 years. Of all the major ethnic groups in Indonesia, a large % of Javanese are working overseas. You will find maids from Central Java and East Java working in Cairo, Egypt and Javanese working in South Korea and Taiwan as factory workers. The largest number of non-Chinese speakers of Cantonese is found in East and Central Java. A lot of observers, both Westerns and Indonesians, underestimate the social and cultural impact of the large numbers of Javanese working overseas has on rural Javanese society. Many people down play the importance of life experience and background over education. The 22 year old maid working in Hong Kong who can speak English and Cantonese most likely has a more worldly outlook that your average university educated civil servant. There are a few TKW and TKI that have youtube channels describing their life overseas. From Hong Kong (1,2,3), from Taiwan (1,2) , South Korea (1,2), Saudi Arabia and Singapore. Some of the channels are typical of experiences of most TKI/TKW working in those locations, while others aren't, like this Javanese woman working in a farm in Hong Kong. There are easily 3 times more TKW/TKI working overseas than there are santri in Indonesia. In light of this, I found Prabowo's Boyolali comments strange when he mentioned that people would get kicked out of a five star hotel in Jakarta because of how they looked. First he assumed they were country bumpkins, when many Javanese villages have people working in all around Asia. Secondly, it assume Jakarta of the universe. For many TKW and TKI, Jakarta is just a layover destination. The reason why Javanese are so adaptable in different parts of the world is because still have both a Western mindset from Islam/Christianity and an Eastern one from Hindu-Buddhism. The irony is that since the Javanese have learned Malay, they understand how outer islanders think, but few outer islanders can understand how the Javanese think. Its easier for a KeJawen follower to understand islam than the reverse. It is why when countries in Mainland Southeast Asia have disputes whether its Myanmar, Cambodia or Thailand, they don't call in the Malaysians or Filipinos, but Indonesians. The Javanese and Sundanese are still a Mandala culture, meaning they understand the culture in Mainland SEA, but are neutral.
SOCIAL AND GENDER EQUALITY
Many Indonesians accuse the Javanese of being feudal and hierarchical, while some of the arguments were justified during the Order Baru, Benedict Anderson talked about Javanization of the Bahasa Indonesia in the 1960-70s, where he compared formal Indonesian to Krama and Betawi dialect to Ngoko. In 1800s, Javanese society was socially rigid and Javanese women position within Javanese society was among the lowest in Indonesia. Relatively to the outer islands now, Javanese society is less socially rigid and has greater gender equality. First, the Javanese were never as socially rigid as most other ethnic groups in archipelago, because Java never has been continuously ruled by one dynasty in the last 700 years, unlike many of the kingdoms of the outer islands. First, the Majapahit was founded by a commoner, and all subsequent kingdoms (even the Islamic ones) can trace their linage back to the Majapahit. After tbe fall of the Majapahit, rulers claimed legitimacy by tying themselves either through blood or "spiritually" as successors to the Majapahit. Its why you get this long period of war lasting from the fall of Majapahit to 1755. When Jokowi became President, some Javanese compared him to Ken Arok, the commoner who founded the Majapahit. Jokowi's ability to get overwhelming support from all Javanese social classes, from the farmers to Javanese royalty, because people were more interested in what he did and his character. Ironically, it was supposedly more egalitarian Muslim outer islanders who were more concerned about Jokowi's appearance and demeanor. Lastly, if one looks at how the royal family of Yogyakarta behaves given their power and influence, it is restrained, compared to the royal families in Malaysia. When Hamengkubuwono X travels outside Yogyakarta he often doesn't travel with a bodyguard or any staff. During a conference for the Javanese diaspora in 2017, Hamengkubuwono X, spoke in Ngoko, because most of the participants only understood Ngoko, the lowest speech register. Usually in such a occasion, the Sultan would use Krama. For those who aren't familiar with registers in Javanese speech, for an English speaker it would be if Queen Elizabeth II was to speak in Cockney. Javanese women are often stereotyped as docile and obedient. I think this was in part a product of foreign and domestic trends that manifest themselves in the 19th century such as a desire for respectability among Javanese, rise of more orthodox Islam and influence from Victorian European morals. And continued after independence, particularly under Suharto. The assumption among many is that gender equality among the Javanese nobility decline when the Javanese transitioned to Islam. However, it is not accurate, Javanese Sultanate had female soldiers/bodyguards well into early 19th century. Raden Ayu Yudakusuma, the first daughter of Hamengkubuwono I who lead a Calvary unit during the Java War 1825-30. In contemporary Java, one seems a greater gender equality with regards to the political role of women in Javanese society. Javanese society has organizations that place women's role as equal or close to equal as men. PDI-P, Indonesia's largest political party, is organization dominated at the top by Javanese women. NU and PKB have strong women's branches. In East Java's the governor and the mayor of the largest city are women. In Jokowi's cabinet, the Finance and Foreign Affairs Minister are Javanese women. The Sultan of Yogyakarta and his daughter IS trying to upend centuries of tradition. The second is gender dynamics within working class Javanese society. In TKW working class Javanese households, gender roles are often reversed, with the men staying behind to take care of the children, while the women travel overseas to work. Here is a dangdut song describing the phenomena, TKW ( Tulong Kirim Werto ) Gafarock feat. Carakan. About 60-70% of Indonesian workers that get sent overseas are women. I would estimate about 70-80% of the maids working in places like Hong Kong / Taiwan are Javanese, even though Javanese make up onty 40% of Indonesia's population. One sees that in Filipino society also. However. the big difference between Javanese women working overseas and their Filipino counter parts or women from NTB (the province that sends the most workers overseas after West Java, Central Java, East Java and North Sumatra), is Javanese maids come from families with 1-2 other siblings. Fertility rates in Central and East java are around 2.0 to 2.3 since late 1990s). This means your average Javanese maid is less likely to have siblings (nephew or nieces) to support through school compared to say maids from the Philippines were fertility rates 20 years ago were 4. As a result they usually have more money to invest in land or setting up a business, which strengthen their standing in the local community. Thirdly, while Javanese women aren't seen as aggressive, they make up for it in being flexible, adaptable and doing things others won't do. For example, most of female Dangdut singers are Javanese from Pantura. As was the case when the Dutch missionaries entered Java in 19th century, Javanese women are much more likely to convert to Christianity, and it shows up population statistics. In Central and East Java, Christian women outnumber Christian men by 108 to 100, in some district its as high as 115:100.. Like in the 19th century, one reason is for social betterment and access to education. NOTE: In the Why Prabowo-Sandi Lost: Caught by the Javanese TsunamI, I didn't mention a negative stereotype of Javanese women, they are "ballbusters", figuratively and literally. When men in the outer island see Megawati and PDI-P, one of the first thing that comes into their mind, is Gerwani. Gerwani was predominately a Javanese, Balinese and Sundanese organization.
JAVANESE AND RELIGION
I will keep this section, brief because a lot of the process you see after the overthrow of Suharto, had their start during last decade of Suharto'[s rule. Like the Javanese courtiers of 18th century, in general most Javanese today are open ended about Javanese religious identity. While Muslim Javanese society, like the rest of Indonesian Muslims, have adopted more orthodox forms of Islam since the fall of Suharto, the historical development of religion in Java as described in the post Islamization and Fragmentation" still impacts Javanese society today.. While many younger Javanese have become more Abrahamic in their view of religions, both Muslims and Christians, the traditional Eastern view of religion still persist among many Javanese. This manifest itself in their political affiliation, their acceptance of converting to other faiths and for Muslim Javanese their flexibility in following Islamic hadiths. In the 17-18th century Javanese mostly had varied beliefs, but most weren't aware how different their beliefs were other groups of Javanese outside their area. However, in 19th century, Javanese religious life to begins to fragment, with some becoming more orthodox (ie Santri), others becoming Christian and by the early 20th century some embracing reformist Islam (Muhammadiyah). By the 1950-70s, some Javanese, mostly abangan, re embrace Buddhism and Hinduism Interestingly, when a Javanese Muslim/Christian converts to Hindusim, Indonesian Hindus don't say they "masuk Hindu", but "kembali ke Dharma" Starting from 1980-90s, new orthodox strains of Islam from the Middle East begin to take root like Wahhabism and Salafiism among a small numbers of Javanese, through contact with the Middle East. So by the 1990s, Javanese are fragmented along sectarian lines. While Javanese of the early 19th century most likely only wore one or two sets of "Agamen", 150 years later it has fragmented into dozen different "Agamen" Sultan Agung to Jokowi: Maintaining Balance and Supremacy of Secular Power Most Indonesians, even many Javanese, don't realize the importance of two concepts of Javanese concepts of power - maintain balance and the supremacy of secular power. Javanese rulers rather not destroy an opponent, particularly a powerful one, but recruit them, if not allow them to live. The reason for this, is the importance of maintaining balance. If you keep a defeated foe alive, they might serve as an ally or balance an opposing force. You see this with FPI. The FPI was created in 1998 by Wiranto and some members of the military to balance the students demonstrators. Now jumping the current period 2019, the elite have realized that FPI has become too powerful and more importantly too dangerous as a tool, now they figures its time cut it down to size. Javanese rulers places secular power above clerical authority, and Javanese rulers have been consistent about this from Sultan Agung to Jokowi. People ignore this rule at their own peril. Of course the methods can range from Amangkurat I slaughter of 6,000 ulema and their families in 1648 to Jokowi's banishment of Rizieq to Saudi Arabia, Amangkurat I pretend he didn't order the killings, and acted outraged and angry at the killing according to Dutch accounts. Is Jokowi behind Rizieq's banishment? We don't know. The Presidential Election was a defeat for the Islamist, not Prabowo. And all of the government actions since starting the second term, from a former general becoming the Minister of Religion amd Nadiem becoming Minister of Education shows the true nature of the election and the victory. Ma'ruf was just a useful tool, and is towing the government line. Ulema should spend less time reading Quran, and more time reading Javanese history, to know you have to be very careful with any Javanese ruler. Darmagandhuland 'Kadrun' vs 'Togog' In a recent article in the Jakarta Post titled The rise of 'kadrun' and 'Togog': Why political polarization in Indonesia is far from over describes the names hardline opponents of Jokow used to describe hardcore supporters of Jokowi and vice versa. Togog is what opponents of Jokowi to describe his supporters. Togog was known as a character of Javanese shadow puppetry. In the wayang story, Togog is the elder brother of Semar. And during the Sate Senayan meeting with Prabowo, Jokowi was sitting in front of a Togog puppet. Kadrun is short for kadal gurun (dabb lizard found in the Middle East) is used to describe Jokowi opponents who support Anies, who is of Arab descent. I had written about this in the post Javanese Islamization and Fragmentation (Part II) where there were two works Darmagandhuland Gatoloco found in the 1870-1890s They can be seen as anti-Islamic and anti-Arab, they often mocked the Arabs (as well as the Chinese to a lesser extent), but more importantly mocked the Santri for their esoteric nonsense and their embrace of Arab customs. Some Muslims scholars have said these works were created by the Dutch to spread anti-Islam sentiment among the population, but the academics consensus is they were produced by the Javanese literati, most likely some of the prominent court poets themselves.
Sonia Ng’s statement before Vice Chancellor Rocky Tuan regarding her and her fellow arrestees’ experiences in police custody (English subtitled video here), and the subsequent closed-door small-group meeting with Vice Chancellor Tuan (English translation here, provided by u/jonatron123).
Summary of the Chinese University of HK’s student body dialogue with Vice Chancellor Rocky Tuan by Varsity CUHK.
Letter from US Congressmen and Congresswomen to NBA Commissioner Adam Silver (here).
New Laws and Legal Challenges
(Anti-Mask Law) Five days after it came into effect, HK Police Force held its first seminar for officers on how to implement the new Anti-Mask Law. Police officers were instructed that they have the right to forcibly remove a mask from anyone, including reporters and patients, at any time if police have reasonable belief that the wearer is using the face mask to evade identification; anyone resisting identity checks can be arrested. No mention of whether a person who has no indication of committing a crime may evade identification for lawful privacy reasons, or if such private persons must still be identified because they exist.
Events and Announcements
(MTR) All main stations to be reopened on Friday 10/11.
Three is a magic number: 3 school-aged girls not wearing black and not wearing face masks were detained and arrested (note that the silver-haired officer is the same officer who pulled his gun just a couple days ago).
Women who work as behind-the-scenes staff at shows (e.g., setting up the stage, changing room assistance, etc.) are being searched without probable cause only because they are wearing black (see comment to this Instagram post). Because their role as behind-the-scenes staff requires them to be inconspicuous, their uniform is normally black shirt and black pants. Their job also requires them to bring their own equipment, such as wire cutters, screwdrivers, tape, even zip ties. A woman staff member stated that she was singled out on a bus and taken to an alleyway to be searched (with mild molestation), but the police officer confiscated her equipment and when she got home, she noticed that her pay for that week (cash of HK$4000 she received just that evening upon leaving worksite) was missing from her wallet.
Police stated in a Facebook post that, when the pregnant woman was arrested on 10/6 and taken to the hospital, no police officer entered the Antenatal ward, and that the arrestee’s male relatives were present. However, a nurse, showing her redacted ID card, responded that a male police officer had entered the Delivery Suite and when the doctor was collecting amniotic fluid from the arrestee (i.e., while she was naked with her legs apart), the police officer insisted on taking her witness statement at that time. Additionally, according to hospital rules, no visitors are allowed in the dead of night, which is when the woman was arrested.
Chinese University of HK Student-Administrator Dialogue
See Varsity CUHK’s summary here. In general, students wanted Vice Chancellor Tuan to support them in the face of oppression, while Tuan’s main focus was on reducing disruptions to studies. While the students at the beginning of the dialogue were very dissatisfied with Tuan, he eventually came to understand the students more and was able to bridge much of the gap with his promise to understand and support them more, including making a good effort to appear in person at court hearings and also to issue a statement condemning police violence.
Highlight: During the larger dialogue, a CUHK student, Sonia Ng, made a statement about what she and her fellow arrestees suffered at Kwai Chung police station and San Uk Ling detention center. In the midst of her statement, she pulled off her face mask and said to Vice Chancellor Rocky Tuan, “I’m going to be brave and pull off my face mask. Will you be brave with me and support us?”
Issues discussed include: security for the University against further non-consensual entry by police, legal representation for students, Tuan’s understanding of protestor culture and student ideals, a student has colleges 1661 signatures of students who object to the Anti-Mask Law, formal condemnation of violence, treatment of mainland students and their integration into Hong Kong society, supporting students in court at their hearings.
An alumnus who disagreed with the students was interrupted during his speech when students spontaneously sang “Glory to Hong Kong.”
One student stated that she was raped at San Uk Ling.
As Tuan was leaving with other administrators, students stopped him, including some kneeling, and asked him to come back to look after some students who had broken down. He eventually did and had a small-group, closed-door discussion with those who were victims of police brutality. In the end, Tuan promised to issue a press release next Friday 10/18.
Police released a statement on Facebook that they will look for the victim who was raped at San Uk Ling and will investigate her allegations.
(Apple /HKMap.live) Apple removed the HKMap.live from its AppStore. HK lawmaker Charles Mok wrote to Tim Cook stating that he uses the HKMap.live often in order to get around the city efficiently be avoiding areas that are congested by police and/or protestor activity, and that he was “deeply disappointed” with Apple’s removal of the app. Mok further stated, “If sharing information on a real-time basis equates to encouraging criminal activity…the same standard should also be applied to review social media apps such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Telegram, and Instagram where people share similar information in real-time.”
(Apple / HKMap.live) According to an internal email allegedly from Tim Cook, HK authorities contacted Apple stating that the app was “being used maliciously to target individual officers for violence and to victimize individuals and property where no police are present.” But HKMap.live operates like Waze where incidents around the city are noted on a live map by ordinary citizen users and aggregated to show hotspots on the live map using icons to indicate where both police and protestors are located and their movements, and also where tear gas has been deployed or barricades erected. HKMap.live would go on to be approved again, and then rejected again by Apple (full statement by Apple here).
(Apple / HKMap.live) In a press conference after the app was removed, neither the Chief Secretary Matthew Cheung or Secretary of Transport and Housing Frank Chan Fan could identify the law that the app supposedly violates, instead throwing it back to Apple to defend why the app was removed from the AppStore.
(Apple / Quartz) Apple also removed the Quartz app from its Chinese AppStore. Quartz CEO: “We abhor this kind of government censorship of the internet.”
(Google Play / Revolution of Our Times app) This game app was a question-and-answer “write your own adventure” game where the user would play the role of a protestor throughout the recent months of protests. Proceeds were being donated to the funds that support arrested and/or jailed protestors. Google Play removed it from the PlayStore.
ESPN’s 7am Sportscenter opened with a map of China that included the controversial and disputed 9-dash line.
(UK) Hon. Dominic Raab writes that BNO status cannot currently be extended to residency in UK and that One Country, Two Systems must be respected as long as it exists.
Pro-democracy candidate filed a request at the ICAC to investigate two individuals for election fraud. The complaint alleges that the two individuals accepted HK$100 in consumer products for their vote in a district in which the winner won by only 2000 votes out of some 20,000 votes.
(Lau Fau Shan) Gun, magazine with 4 live rounds, an axe, 4 9-inch blade knives, and a metal rod found in a car that had been reported lost in 2017.
2017.07.29 05:56 hateshalldevourWhat's happening in AUGUST 2017
Well, here it is. You guys know the drill. Don't hesitate to inform me regarding anything I've missed out. I'll try my best to update the thread for you as soon as possible. Be sure to check this thread every week because some events are only organised within the month itself. So yeah, I wish you guys a wonderful August ahead and hopefully we'll meet again in September. Edit: Ohh, the thread has just been stickied. Thanks mods! Edit 2: Thank you so much for the gold whoever you are! ^ ^
July to 27 Aug 2017 4.30 - 9.30pm Bazaar / Crafts / Vintage Goods THE ARTISANS' BAZAAR - A part of SO SINGAPORE AT SENTOSA(More events in the link) Shop for a delightful array of vintage goods and handmade collectibles at this crafts fair, where you can pick up gifts like Handmade Zen figurines, Grandfather Clocks, Dreamcatchers, Recycled Tins with Functional lights, Hand Wax Modeling and Handmade Miniature Clay Dollhouses. Merlion Plaza Linkway Bridge (Imbiah Station), Sentosa
July - 27 Aug 2017 Various timings Public Display / Show MERLION MAGIC LIGHTS - A part of SO SINGAPORE AT SENTOSA(More events in the link) Get your cameras ready and stand in awe as the majestic Sentosa Merlion comes to life with vibrant and colourful National Day-themed lights and projections, when night falls! Apart from the theme of patriotism, the ever-popular light and music extravaganza now comes with an added feature so that you can experience augmented reality (AR) effects while watching the show through your smartphones. Merlion Plaza (Imbiah Station)
1 Aug 2017 Tues 8pm Comedy / Performance Comedy Masala featuring FAKKAH FUZZ (SG) Fakkah Fuzz is back for his first headline set at Masala in 2017! Fuzz is Singapore's biggest comedy star, and now regularly appears on TV, Radio (and we're guessing Hollywood at some point!). Fuzz is a performer through and through, but his first love is stand-up comedy, and if you haven't seen him live then swing by on Tues 01 Aug. It's gonna be an awesome show, so book tables early. Hero's, 69 Circular Road
2 Aug 2017 Thurs 2.30 - 3.30pm (Registration starts at 2pm) Science & Technology / Space / Lecture The SUTD “MASTERS OF TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN” LECTURE featuring NASA ASTRONAUT JEFF WILLIAMS Join us in this rare opportunity where Commander Williams shares his experiences and insights on some of the important research being conducted on board ISS. As the commercial space industry (“NewSpace”) works hand-in-hand with national programmes to offer increased civilian access to outer space, we need to better understand how biological and physical systems respond in an environment well beyond the tug of Earth’s gravity. Space technology is developing at an unprecedented rate and global options in space-related careers are expected to grow substantially. Hear about today’s experiences to look out for tomorrow’s opportunities. SUTD Auditorium Info provided by executeorder69.
3 - 20 Aug 2017 7.30pm Film / Food & Drinks FILMS AT THE FORT Open Air Cinema Films At The Fort is Singapore’s premier open-air cinema event, combining award winning films with gourmet food and wine. This is the perfect place to unwind with friends over a glass of wine and a picnic before enjoying an award winning film under the stars. Amphitheatre, Fort Canning Park
4 Aug 2017 Fri Celebrations PENESUKE'S BIRTHDAY Don't forget to wish our fellow redditor a happy birthday! /singapore
4 - 5 / 11 - 12 Aug 2017 Fri and Sat 5pm Art / Music / Market / Food & Drinks / Live Performances / Tours CIVIC DISTRICT OUTDOOR FESTIVAL - WHEN TIME STOOD STILL Held in Singapore's Civic District, the inaugural Civic District Outdoor Festival will transform the district's charming and historical architecture into an extravaganza of multimedia, art installations, stage and music performances, art markets and food streets. Amidst all the excitement, the Padang will also be transformed into a giant picnic area for you and your family and friends to take in the festivities. Various locations around National Gallery Singapore
4 - 6 Aug 2017 Fri - Sun 4 - 8pm Bazaar / Design / Food & Drinks SINGAPASAR 2017 The wildy popular and successful design centric pasar malam, returns for the third year. Singapasar brings together the bestest and newest collection of Singapore under one roof. You can expect to find locally designed or made products (furnitures, food, apparels, bags, beverages, accessories and many more) telling stories of our Singaporean identity, history and culture. Main Atrium & Gallery 1, National Design Centre
4 - 6 Aug 2017 Fri - Sun 10am - 10pm Food & Drinks / Market / Live Performances SINGAPORE COFFEE FESTIVAL 2017 Singapore Coffee Festival is back for its second year and we have a new home at the Marina Bay Cruise Centre. Delve in the café culture with Singapore’s most loved cafes and coffee players from around the world. Enjoy your cuppa in specially designed social spaces or with a breath-taking waterfront view; book yourself in for lab sessions to learn more about coffee, treat yourself to retail therapy, all while relaxing to renown local music acts. Marina Bay Cruise Centre
4 - 13 Aug 2017 Mon - Fri (1 - 6pm) / Weekends & PH (10am - 6pm) Warehouse Sale / Literary BOOKS BOX SALE The sale that you have been waiting for is back! Fit as much books as you can into a carton box until it amounts to $50 and as long as they can seal the box flat, it is yours! Books are also sold individually and flash sale items are excluded from the box sale! Pansing Building (Level 3), 438 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 10, Industrial Park 1, Singapore 569619
4 - 13 Aug 2017 11am - 9pm Exhibits / Public Displays / Heritage HERITAGE CARNIVAL 2017 - A part of SO SINGAPORE AT SENTOSA(More events in the link) The all-day Heritage Carnival will take you back in time to Singapore's fishing village days to the post-war era. You will get to interact with villagers, snap selfies with retro exhibits and larger-than-life food props, or take a trip down the memory lane with old-school Singapore artefacts and collectibles on display. What's more, there will be food stalls selling delectable Singaporean delights such as Peranakan Kueh, Burger Bombs and Chendol on selected days. The food and retail stalls are only available from 4 to 6 August, 3 - 9.30pm (Friday) and 11am - 9.30pm (Saturday & Sunday). Palawan Green (Beach Station)
4 - 20 Aug 2017 Various days and timings Drama / Comedy / Theatre Michael Chiang's ARMY DAZE 2 The sequel to Army Daze, Singapore’s best-loved comedy, is finally here. This all-new comedy catches up with Malcolm Png three decades later. Our mummy’s boy is now an SAF regular, serving as Director of Public Affairs. When his son Justin enters national service, it brings back vivid memories of his own experience. Drama Theatre Centre @ National Library
6 Aug 2017 Sun 6pm Dance Competiton / Performance SUPER 24 NATIONAL FINALS It seems like all the tickets have been sold out for this event. Try to find alternative ticket sources if you wish to attend. Super 24 brings a new dimension to dance showcase competitions in Singapore. With the increase in popularity and formation of dance interest groups, there has arisen a need to create a new platform for these groups to showcase not just their dance talents, but also the depth of their unity. The team that best exemplifies adaptability, creativity and team unity – displaying an ability to turn the presented constraints into advantages by tapping on the important resource of all their team mates – a spirit best epitomised by our country Singapore – will win the championship and be known as ‘Super 24’. Hall 601 - 604, Suntec Convention & Exhibition Centre Info provided by the thebountywarden.
8 - 27 Aug 2017 Various Timings Theatre / Performance FORBIDDEN CITY: PORTRAIT OF AN EMPRESS Two of the greatest icons of China's ancient history come to life before your eyes in a spectacular musical of epic proportions. Come step into the cloaked world of the Forbidden City and the legendary Empress Dowager Cixi. You'll be mesmerised by this soulful tale of dark secrets, whispered rumours, love, betrayal and power. Forbidden City: Portrait of an Empress explodes on stage with stunning sets, costumes and the ever-haunting question of the truth. What really happened in the Forbidden City over a century ago? Who was the real Empress Dowager? The Dragon Lady of myth? Or a misunderstood victim of circumstance? Esplanade Theatre Info provided by auraliez.
9 Aug 2017 Wed 4pm National Celebration / Performance NATIONAL DAY PARADE 2017 Ticket collection for this has ended as well. Marina Bay Floating Platform
10 Aug 2017 Thurs 8.30 - 10.30pm $15 Comedy / Performance TALK COCK COMEDY feat. THE LATECOMERS (IMPROV SHOW) The Latecomers, who will be putting on an improv show a la Whose Line Is It Anyway?, full of jokes, songs and you guessed it, improvised humor! Come for the comedy, stay for the drinks & food, enjoy the company and get ready for a great night out at Blu Jaz Cafe with TALK COCK COMEDY! Blu Jaz Cafe Info provided by latecomersimprov.
11 - 13 Aug 2017 Fri - Sun 12pm - 2am (9pm on 13 Aug) Food & Drinks / Farmer's Market / Masterclasses EPICUREAN MARKET 2017 Not just an ordinary food and wine fair, Epicurean Market at Marina Bay Sands gives you three days of direct access to world-class food, wines and spirits – for a fraction of the price! Sample famous signature dishes by celebrity chefs, taste award-winning vintages and one-of-a-kind cocktails, and get great deals on imported specialities to take home with you. Enhance your culinary and bartending skills with this year's exciting lineup of masterclasses. Lead by industry experts, you'll learn the secrets of the world's top chefs and mixologists, and leave ready to impress your friends and family. Halls A, B and C, Sands Expo and Convention Centre Info provided by presumenothing.
12 Aug 2017 Sat 10am - 4pm Music / Performance / Concert Band BAND FIESTA IN THE COMMUNITY III Back for a third year running, 'Band Fiesta' jointly organized by the Directors' Association (Singapore), Bukit Batok CCMC and West Mall celebrates our National Day with music performed by 13 school concert bands performing iconic National Day songs, wind band classics and pop songs. Open Plaza, West Mall Info provided by swiftyegg.
12 - 13 Aug 2017 Sat and Sun 11am - 5pm Art Market / Exhibition / Talks / Workshops ILLUSTRATION ARTS FESTIVAL 2017 IAF is focused on originally-created content and narratives by independent illustrators who work in styles and art forms which are not commonly seen in Asia and are distinguished from the more prevalent trend of superheroes, manga and anime themes. Aside from being a showcase for Singapore’s illustration talents, IAF will also feature overseas visiting artists from France, Taiwan, Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition to talks, workshops and book signings by illustrators, there will also be an Arts Market featuring works by professional illustrators and LASALLE students. The Arts Market is open to the public and admission is free. Various locations within LASELLE McNally Campus Info provided by everlf.
12 - 20 Aug 2017 11am - 9pm (10pm on Fri - Sun) Food & Drinks / Pop-up Market Resort World Sentosa's STREET EATS Join us as we celebrate the rich heritage of Southeast Asia’s street food culture right here at the inaugural RWS Street Eats! Conveniently located under one roof, prep your taste buds to feast on food from more than 20 hawkers specially curated from Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and Singapore. Malaysian Food Street, Waterfront, Level 1, Resort World Sentosa Info provided by presumenothing.
13 Aug 2017 Sun 8am - 6pm Cars / Motorsports AUTOTEST ROUND 3 Come join us for a day of local motorsports fun and action. Bring your friends and family! Free for spectators and photographers! Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal Info provided by litpath.
13 Aug 2017 Sun 7.30am Sports Event / Run / Raising Awareness / Charity GROUND ZERO RUN FOR HUMANITY Organised by Mercy Relief, Singapore’s leading independent disaster relief agency, Ground Zero Run for Humanity challenges participants with the simulated experience of a survivor’s journey from ground zero to collect urgent supplies needed in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Do your part. Sign up today to run for humanity. Casuarina Grove, East Coast Park
17 - 18 Aug 2017 Thurs and Fri 8pm Comedy / Performance KENNY SEBASTIAN (IND) LIVE Kenny Sebastian’s known for his humorous & creative takes on banal everyday situations. Born into a middle class family and raised across different cities in India helped Kenneth Sebastian develop a keen sense of observation of culture, people and stereotypes, all of which have found its way into his comedy. Nexus Auditorium
17 - 20 Aug 2017 Thurs - Sun Various timings Food & Drinks / Music / Live Performances BEERFEST ASIA 2017 SINGAPORE Beerfest Asia 2017 is back with a bigger bang! Back with a refreshed programme and a brand new venue, the 9th edition of this prolific beer festival promises more bands and a greater variety of beers. Look forward to tasting over 500 different kinds of commercial and craft beers and ciders with the guided beer tours and beer pairing workshops lined up. Plus, chill and be entertained by over 30 live music acts, stand-up comedies and also sampling delicious food – all this and more under the Singapore skyline. Marina Bay Cruise Centre
17 - 27 Aug 2017 Thurs - Sun only Various timings Magic / Performance COSENTINO (US): ANYTHING IS POSSIBLE "Anything is Possible" is packed with death-defying escapes that thrill, mind boggling illusions, never before seen magic that excites and cutting-edge street conjuring that twists your reality. Audiences will witness the most powerful, riveting and sought after magic in the entertainment industry today. So indulge your mind, treat your senses and experience family entertainment at it's highest level. MasterCard Theatres, Marina Bay Sands
18 - 19 Aug 2017 Fri and Sat 11am - 6pm Science / Technology / Health X-PERIMENT! @ ONE-NORTH FESTIVAL Fancy a peek at what goes on behind-the-scenes in science? Discover the latest scientific developments and discoveries by researchers from universities, research institutions and companies at X-periment! At this two-day science carnival, visitors will get to experience new, cutting-edge innovations on the theme of Future Health. Matrix, Biopolis @ one-north
18 - 20 Aug 2017 Fri - Sun Various timings Expo / Motorbikes THE SINGAPORE BIKE SHOW 2017 The Singapore Bike Show serves as a weekend event for bike enthusiasts and hobbyists to meet, greet and talk shop, and a key platform for motor associations, manufacturers, distributors, training schools and delivery companies in Asia to converge, network and develop business opportunities. Hall 5, Singapore Expo Info provided by hkma14.
18 - 26 Aug 2017 7.30pm - 12am Art / Music / Live Performances SINGAPORE NIGHT FESTIVAL 2017 Take a walk down memory lane with the Singapore Night Festival as it celebrates 10 magical years this August! This year’s edition will rekindle the romance and beauty of night lights and exhilarating performances, bringing back previous crowd favourites in a refreshing retrospective, while looking forward to its bright future as Singapore’s largest outdoor performing arts festival. Various locations at Bras Basah and Bugis
18 August 2017 Fri 7pm 19 August 2017 Sat 2 - 4:30pm Choir / Charity Event NORWAY'S OLDEST BOYS CHOIR performs at SGH 7 and National Gallery Nine talented choristers from the Nidaros Cathedral Men & Boys Choir (Nidarosdomens Guttekor) will be making their way to our sunny shores in August as part of their promotional tour for the October concerts. With a belief that music heals, the choristers will pop by Singapore General Hospital on 18 August for an exclusive charity performance as a special musical treat for all patients and hardworking hospital staff. To cap off the exciting week, the talented Nidarosdoments Guttekor choir members will be the featured artist of Resonates With: Norway’s Nidaros Cathedral Men and Boys Choir at National Gallery Singapore with 3 performances between 2-4:30pm on 19 August. Info provided by magarell.
19 Aug 2017 Sat 5 - 11pm Art / Music / Night Market / Street Performances ALIWAL ARTS NIGHT CRAWL 2017 The Aliwal Arts Night Crawl is an annual multi-disciplinary arts festival held in Kampong Glam. It aims to promote the eclectic mix of traditional and contemporary artists based in Aliwal Arts Centre, while paying homage to the rich cultural heritage of Kampong Glam. Aliwal Arts Centre and various locations around Kampong Glam
19 Aug 2017 Sat 3pm Japanese Culture / Live Performances / Food & Drinks NATSU MATSURI SUMMER FESTIVAL 2017 As the name suggests, the ‘Natsu Matsuri’ is a Summer Festival held annually throughout Japan. This festival was first held in the Obon period to honour one’s ancestors. Subsequently, in the Edo period, the Natsu Matsuri became a popular festival to relieve summer fatigue. Following the rise of Japanese popular culture and consumer culture, the Japanese Association of Singapore (JAS) organizes an annual Natsu Matsuri event that is tinted with a Singapore touch. Changi Japanese Primary School Info provided by XiMerx.
19 Aug 2017 Sat 7pm Motorsports / Monster Trucks MONSTER JAM 2017 in Singapore Celebrating 25 years of adrenaline-charged family fun, Monster Jam combines spontaneous entertainment with the ultimate off-road, motorsport competition. Monster Jam events leave you on the edge of your seat as these competitors thrill fans with jaw-dropping displays of gravity-defying feats. Singapore Monster Jam will feature 10 of the most recognizable trucks in the world including Grave Digger®, 11-time world champion Max-D™, El Toro Loco®, and many more. National Stadium
19 Aug 2017 Sat 12 - 10 pm Pop-up Market / Live Performances / Food & Drinks FESTIVAL FOR GOOD Experience the wonderful world of social enterprises, with everything from health and wellness, fashion, home-ware and technology, to coffee, food bites and more. You’ll be immersed in a world of possibilities where you cannot only indulge in beautiful products and services, but also impact our world in such a positive way! lyf @ Singapore Management University, 71-77 Stamford Road, MPH Building, 178895 Singapore
19 - 20 Aug 2017 Sat (10am - 8pm) / Sun (10am - 5pm) Food & Drinks / Raising Awareness / Health / Charity GREEN & HEALTHY FESTIVAL 2017 Come join the Green and Healthy movement and taste delicious vegan food and beverages, meet leading chefs and authors, shop for organic and eco-friendly products, learn from regional experts and participate in educational and entertainment activities. Hall 6A, Singapore Expo Info provided by jovialchewedup.
24 - 26 Aug 2017 Thurs - Sat 11am - 6pm (5pm on Sat) Expo / Aviation / Exhibition / Recruitment Fair AVIATION OPEN HOUSE 2017 Held once every two years by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS), the Open House brings the aviation community together to showcase the wide range of careers and exciting opportunities that the industry holds. Cutting-edge technology is poised to revolutionise the industry in coming years, both on the ground and in the skies. Through games and interactive workshops, learn how Singapore aviation is embracing technology, and be inspired by the stories of our aviation professionals at the forefront of change with exciting technology showcases and exhibits. Level 4, Halls 405 - 406, Suntec Convention & Exhibition Centre Info provided by presumenothing.
25 Aug - 10 Sept Various days and timings Theatre / Performance THE NUTCRACKER - A SPECTACULAR MAGIC EXTRAVAGANZA A brand-new magic-meets-theatre production directed by Fan Dong Kai, the one-of-its-kind featuring world-class illusions, state-of-the-art technology combining classical music arranged in modern style, The Nutcracker promises to dazzle your senses, touch your heart and bring you on a spectacular magic sensory adventure! Gateway Theatre Info provided by a5dfa5h.
26 Aug 2017 Sat 7.30pm Orchestra / Choir / Gaming / Performance THE LEGEND OF ZELDA - SYMPHONY OF THE GODDESSES Brought to life as never before, witness as 30 years of video game history unfolds, complete with a stirring cinematic video presentation, synced with the game's sensational, thematic and action-packed soundtracks played live by a full orchestra and choir. MasterCard Theatres, Marina Bay Sands
26 - 27 Aug 2017 Sat and Sun 10am - 6pm Motorsports / Motorbikes / Race SINGAPORE MX BEACH RACE 2017 It will be an action-filled gathering of a community who are passionate about riding, as well as adrenaline junkies and anyone who has ever dreamed of feeling the power of a motorbike! Tanjong Beach, Sentosa
Whole of Aug 2017 10am Art / Exhibition PIECE BY PEACE World Tour - World Heritage Exhibit built with LEGO® Bricks This exhibition originated in Japan to support UNESCO’s World Heritage activities and to promote peace by bringing awareness of the World Heritage sites to everyone – young and old. The highlight of the exhibition is the 43 reconstructed World Heritage sites from 34 countries. A number of ‘Amazing Singapore’ LEGO® builds, crowdsourced by our very own local Singaporeans, will also be on display. Fort Canning Arts Centre
Whole of Aug until 3 Sept 2017 Various dates and timings Art / Exhibitions / Performances / Film Screenings SINGAPORE INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF ARTS (SIFA) 2017 SIFA is the premier national performing arts festival managed by the Arts House Limited and commissioned by the National Arts Council. It aims to inspire through great international and Singapore artistic experiences in performance, theatre, dance and music. Various locations around Singapore Info provided by presumenothing.
3 Aug 2017 Thurs 10pm - 3am Trap / Future Bass / Hip-hop / Dance THE LOW DOWN #1 FEAT. LINCEY Need a good perk up? Moonbeats Asia presents The Low Down, Singapore’s freshest night debuting on 3 August 2017. Teaming up with our favourite new haunt, Cherry Discotheque and Lincey, the mastermind behind RECESS nights, expect delicious trap, future bass and beat breaking hip-hop drops and more. Supported by JRZ, teamcake and WLDKRT. Cherry Discotheque
4 Aug 2017 Fri 9pm til late Reggae / Ska / Dancehall / Afrobeat / Carribbean ROOTIKAL JAM Performed by Reggae Remedy, Ras Irie and Rumshot. Artistry
4 - 25 Aug 2017 Every fridays 8pm Jazz Coastes Singapore presents JAZZ BY THE BEACH Performed by Mojo Syndicate, Carol Gomez, Some Kind of Groove, Momma's Grooves, Anne Weerapass and Rob Collins & The Jukebox Quartet. Coastes, 50 Siloso Beach Walk
5 Aug 2017 Sat 6pm - 3am EDM THE ONE STAR SEARCH & MUSIC FESTIVAL THE ONE Star Search & Music Festival is Asia’s first lifestyle festival featuring an exciting talent showcase, widely acclaimed DJs, delectable food and free flow of alcohol. Performed by Wolfpack, Marc Vedo, DJ Nicole Chen and Vellatrix. Wavehouse Sentosa
5 Aug 2017 Sat 4 - 11pm Various Skechers SUNDOWN FESTIVAL 2017 Sundown Festival is an iconic annual event that celebrates Asian music and culture with the objective to showcase the vibrant Asian entertainment scene on a singular platform, uniting and bridging the diversity of Asian countries. Performed by Derrick Hoh, Jack & Rai, Ling Kai, Jason Chung, Farrago and The Summer State. City Beach Resort, Labrador Park
5 & 6 Aug 2017 Sat & Sun Drum / Percussion ULTIMATE DRUMMERS WEEKEND 2017 Performed by Meytal Cohen and her bassist Anel Pedrero, Juan Carlito Mendoza, Jost Nickel, Stanley Randolph, as well as local acts like Benjamin Lim and Anson Koh (Drum Off 2016 Open Category Champion) & his band. Max Atria @ Singapore Expo
6 Aug 2017 Sun 5.30pm Metal THRASHING MELTDOWN GIG Performed by Bloodstone, Xanadoo, Dispiteous, Sintoxicate, Splinter Shard and Exothermix (MY). DECLINE! Studio
8 Aug 2017 Tues 4pm (Exhibition) / 7pm (Gig) Punk / Hardcore / Metal FOR DOLS BY DOLS - DIY Gig & Art Exhibition Art by Ken Terror Performed by Sintoxicate, Dethrone the Pigs, Indecixive, Sial, Kontrasosial (ID) and Kontradiksi (ID). Ebenex Live Space
11 Aug 2017 Fri 7pm Punk / Hardcore HARDCORE HELL #7 Performed by Recover, Alter Ego, Deceased, Obscure, Bleach, Secret Weapon (BO) and Angry Kids (ID). Ebenex Live Space
12 Aug 2017 Sat 5pm til late House / Techno / Disco THE COUNCIL OPEN AIR We are taking the party up top and under the stars. Come lose yourselves on the dancefloor and amongst the city lights, as our lineup of local stalwarts dish out the finest house and techno to keep you moving all night long. Performed by Brendon P, DJ KFC, MyHero, Yadin Moha, Daryl C, Hawt Hand, Julien Brochard, Adrian Wee, EJ Missy and Satish K. Levels 3 and 4, 79 Circular Road
16 Aug 2017 Wed 8 - 10pm Hip-hop LIDO - Live in Singapore Performing live, Lido flits from drums to keys, sometimes even backed by an orchestra and compelling visual arrangements. This is an individual who doesn't do anything by halves -- and for that reason it's clear that 2017 is going to be the most exciting yet in the life of Peder. Kilo Lounge Info provided by itsrapture.
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